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  In Finland’s Open Prisons, 1)Inmates Have the Keys
中国论文网 /9/view-10879888.htm
  To find the inmates at Kerava Prison, I walked on a tree-lined path and opened the door to a greenhouse. “We have bunnies here,” says Hannu Kallio, a 2)convicted drug 3)smuggler.
  Hannu: Quite relaxing to be here.
  Every day the 70 inmates here go to work in this greenhouse. On this day they’re potting delicate 4)seedlings, gearing up for a big spring sale.
  Hannu: Every greenhouse is full of flowers.
  This greenhouse is part of an open prison, which means the three guards are nowhere in sight, there are no gates, no locks, no uniforms, and, as a few inmates informed me.
  Prisoner: Yeah, we even have our own keys. Yeah.
  Open prisons have been around in Finland since the 1930s. Back then they were more like labor colonies. These days, they’re the last step of a prison sentence. It’s where inmates prove they’re ready to 5)transition back to regular life. And it’s not just for non-violent 6)offenders. Marcus, Hannu, Enyuha. Their crimes range from drug offences to murder, and their sentences from one year to life. They’ve all spent time in regular prisons. They all had to apply to come here. They pay rent to the prison, they also pay taxes and have cellphones. They go home for the holidays. They even do their grocery shopping in town.
  I have to admit I was kind of surprised to learn that people convicted of murder can do their time in a gateless prison a few bus stops from a residential neighborhood. But the locals don’t seem to mind. In fact, they were confused when I asked if they were concerned about sharing the town with prisoners. Some told me that the prisoners improve the community by restoring historic sites and cleaning up public spaces. Not every prisoner’s a candidate though.
  Tapio Lappi-Sepp?l? (Head of the Institute of Criminology, University of Helsinki): Let’s be clear that we have high risk, violent, repeat offenders―every country has them―and they are not working in open prison.
  But over a third of Finland’s entire prison population lives in open facilities, and the system seems to work here. A few decades ago the country had one of the highest 7)incarceration rates on the continent. Now it has one of the lowest.
  They’re in some unlikely places, too. Helsinki’s No. 1 tourist attraction, 8)Suomenlinna Island, is home to an open prison.   Jukka Tiihonen spent a few years on the island completing a sentence for murder. Before he came here, Jukka spent seven years in a traditional closed facility. He says, on his first day here in open prison, he was assigned to work on fixing some old walls. He found himself in an odd situation, with an axe in one hand, a knife in the other, and tourists everywhere.
  Jukka: I know, it was very strange.
  But Tiihonen says, after a few months here, he started to feel different.
  Jukka: Maybe start to feel like a normal people [sic], not a prisoner anymore, who will tell you off.
  He applied to study at a university in town. A few months later he was hopping on the ferry to Helsinki every day to study for a master’s degree in Spanish. When Jukka finished his sentence in 2013, he says the transition to regular life wasn’t that noticeable.
  He now works for an NGO that helps recentlyreleased prisoners find housing.
  Jukka: I want to go…do what normal people do.
  为了去见凯拉瓦监狱的服刑人员,我走过一条林荫小路,打开了一扇通往温室的门。正在服刑的毒品走私犯汉努・卡里奥告诉我:“我们这里有兔子。”
  汉努:在这里的气氛相当轻松。
  这里的70名服刑人员每天都会到这个温室来工作。他们今天的工作是将娇嫩的幼苗装盆,为春季大促销做准备。
  汉努:每个温室都开满了鲜花。
  这个温室是一所开放式监狱的一部分,这就意味着你不会看到这里的三名狱警,这里没有门,不上锁,没有囚服。此外,正如几个服刑人员告诉我的那样:
  囚犯:对,我们甚至有自己的钥匙,是这样的。
  芬兰从上世纪30年代起就开始推行开放式监狱。那时的开放式监狱更像是劳动营。现在,这里是入狱服刑的最后一个环节。在这里,服刑人员要证明自己已经做好了重返正常生活的准备。开放式监狱不仅只为非暴力犯人而设。比如马库斯、汉努、恩虞哈三人,他们的罪行包括贩毒和谋杀,刑期从一年到无期徒刑不等。他们都曾在普通监狱里服刑,必须提出申请才能到这里来。他们要向监狱付房租,还要纳税,可以拥有手机。他们可以回家过节,甚至可以去镇上购物。
  我得承认,知道被判谋杀罪的人可以在一个不设门的监狱里服刑,而且该监狱距离居民住宅区只有几站公交车的路程时,我很惊讶。但当地人似乎并不介意。事实上,当我问他们对与犯人在同一个镇上生活是否有顾虑时,他们感到迷惑不解。有人告诉我,犯人们修复历史遗址,清扫公共场所,使社区环境得到了改善。但并不是所有犯人都可以申请来此。
  塔皮奥・拉皮-斯普拉(赫尔辛基大学犯罪学研究所负责人):要明确的是,我们也有高度危险的暴力惯犯――每个国家都有这样的人――这些人不能到开放式监狱工作。
  但芬兰的全部在押人员中,有超过三分之一生活在开放式监狱里,而这种制度在这里似乎很有效。几十年前,芬兰是欧洲大陆上监禁率最高的国家之一,现在则是其中最低的一个国家。
  囚犯们还会出现在一些让人意想不到的地方,首都赫尔辛基排名第一的旅游胜地芬兰堡岛就是一个开放式监狱的所在地。
  尤卡・提霍南在结束他的谋杀罪刑期前,曾经在这个岛上过了几年。来此地之前,他在一个传统的封闭式监狱呆了七年。他说,来到这个开放式监狱的第一天,他就被安排去修缮古城墙。他发现自己的处境相当诡异:一手拿着斧头,另一手拿着刀,而这里到处都有游客。
  尤卡:我知道,那非常奇怪。
  但提霍南说,来这里几个月之后,他开始感觉不一样了。
  尤卡:也许开始觉得自己像个正常人了,不再是一个被人训斥的囚犯。
  他申请去镇上的一所大学学习。几个月后,他每天跳上开往赫尔辛基的渡船,去攻读西班牙语硕士学位。尤卡说,在2013年服刑期满时,回归正常生活的过渡并不明显。
  他如今为一个非政府组织工作,帮助新近释放的囚犯寻找住处。
  尤卡:我想去……做正常人做的事。

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